Academic Year 2023 – 2024

General Information

Fisher Hall

Program Offerings:

  • Ph.D.

Director of Graduate Studies:

Graduate Program Administrator:


The graduate program in the Department of Politics leads to the doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in politics. There is no separate program for a master’s degree. The program is designed to offer broad professional training in political science and to enable students to specialize in any of the main subfields of political science (American politics, comparative politics, international politics, and political theory), as well as public law and formal and quantitative analysis.


Application deadline
December 15, 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (This deadline is for applications for enrollment beginning in fall 2024)
Program length
5 years
General Test - required

Additional departmental requirements

Sample of written work, 25 page maximum. Applicants are required to select an academic subplan when applying.

Program Offerings

Program Offering: Ph.D.


Each student must complete at least six graded seminars by May of the first year, and a total of at least 12 graded seminars by May of the second year. If students take two rather than three of the general examinations, then they must complete 14 graded seminars by May of the third year. The required seminars must include at least one in three of the seven regular fields offered by the department. The director of graduate studies must approve all course selections.

Seminars (500-level courses) may be chosen from the 20 to 30 typically offered in the department each year. Students may also take Ph.D. seminars offered in neighboring departments and in the School of Public and International Affairs. These may be counted toward the seminar requirement if they have political content. All students taking courses outside the department must complete a comparable writing or examination requirement to politics seminars in order for those courses to be counted toward the seminar requirement.

Students participating in the Program in Political Philosophy may compose a special field made up of courses in one of the other cooperating departments in the program (classics, history, philosophy, and religion). Other departments that have been of interest to students include economics, sociology, psychology, East Asian studies, and Near Eastern studies.

In addition to regularly offered seminars, graduate students may create reading courses under the direction of a faculty member to explore more specialized topics. Reading courses typically include one faculty member and one student, although some include several students.

Seminars end on the last regular day of classes (December and April), and students must complete all assigned short essays within one week of that day. Students complete their fall-term research papers by approximately the third week of January, and their spring-term research papers by the third week of May.

Additional pre-generals requirements

Writing Requirement
Each student is required to write at least three research papers in the first three years, at least two of which must be completed in the second year. With the approval and advice of the instructor, a research paper may be completed in a seminar and counted toward the seminar grade.

In addition, each student is required to take one term of directed research (POL 591) in the spring term of the second year. This project is independent of any seminar. To encourage students to become involved in research and collaboration with faculty as soon as possible, students select their independent work adviser and the general topic of their paper by mid-term in the spring term of the first year. Students convey these choices to the director of graduate studies in writing. This paper often builds on prior work done in a seminar. Students are required to present the POL 591 paper in the appropriate research seminar during the fall or spring term of the second year. The final paper is due by August 30 before the fifth semester.

Students are urged to use these various research and writing experiences to build toward a dissertation. For example, a student with a promising seminar paper might use POL 591 to do more extensive research on the subject and to develop a dissertation proposal based on it.

In order to encourage students to write papers of article length, all research papers are limited to 22,000 words. This applies to papers written for seminars and for POL 591.

Research Seminars
Every year the department offers research seminars in each of the four major fields of political science (political theory, comparative politics/systems and culture, American politics, and international relations). Each enrolled student in residence is required to join one of these seminars each year, attend it regularly, and present their research at least once during the year. Research seminars are graded on a pass/fail basis.

Students present forms of work appropriate to their standing in the graduate program. First-year students typically offer seminar papers (sometimes in draft form), usually in the spring. Second-year students usually present their POL 591 paper.

General exam

Each student must successfully stand for the general examination and be recommended for continuation in the program before undertaking dissertation research. The purpose of the general examination is to ascertain a student’s knowledge of political science and his or her preparedness for advanced research. The best preparation is extensive seminar work in the department, supplemented as necessary by independent reading and study.

The general examination consists of written examinations in three separate fields and an oral examination. Students may opt to take written examinations in two rather than three fields on the condition that they complete 14 (rather than the required 12) graded seminars, including a coherent three-course 500-level sequence in a third field (but not including SPI 507b, 508b, or 508c). Students must receive an average grade of B or better in these three courses in order for them to be used for the third field. These courses must be chosen from outside the fields covered by the two written exams.

Normally at least two of a student’s general examination fields are selected from the seven regular examination fields listed below. A student may design a third, “substitute” field to replace the third regular examination field. Substitute fields should cohere with the student’s educational and research interests, and must not substantially overlap with the student’s other fields. A student may propose either a standard exam from another department (for example, political economy in economics) or in unusual circumstances a special examination. Special examinations require the agreement of a sponsoring faculty member in another department and the director of graduate studies. Alternatively, the “substitute” third field may be completed under the two-exam, 14-course option described above.

The politics faculty regularly sets examinations in the following seven fields: political theory, comparative politics, regional studies, American politics, international relations, public law, and formal and quantitative analysis. The Regional Studies exams test for mastery of theoretical and empirical knowledge about one of the following world regions: Africa, Asia (with the possibility to specify East Asia, Southeast Asia, or South Asia), Latin America, the Middle East, Western Europe, or the Former Soviet Union and East Europe.  Students must specify in advance the region in which they are specializing.

All written examinations are four hours in length, with an additional hour for preparation. All written examinations are closed-book. An oral examination will be administered in every case in which the candidate’s grade on the overall written examination averages to 1.995 or worse or the candidate’s grade on any individual field exam is 1.995 or worse. For students receiving a grade better than 1.995 on the overall written exam and each field of the written exam, the requirement of an oral examination is waived. The oral examination is conducted by a faculty panel, with one member from each of the fields in which the student is being examined. For students taking only two written exams, the faculty panel for the oral examination will include two members of the primary field.  The faculty panels of the oral examination are constituted by the DGS.

Students must stand for the general examination no later than the end of the fourth term of enrollment. They may opt to take the examination sooner. All students must complete at least seven graded seminars at Princeton before taking the general examination.

Qualifying for the M.A.

The Master of Arts (M.A.) degree is normally an incidental degree on the way to full Ph.D. candidacy. To qualify for the award of the M.A., a student must earn an average grade of B- or better in 12 seminars and complete two research papers with a grade of B- or better. The M.A. may also be awarded to students who, for various reasons, leave the Ph.D. program, provided that these requirements have been met. 


Each student must lead undergraduate preceptorials during the five years of enrollment. Students typically teach after passing the general examination. A preceptorial is a discussion section of up to 13 undergraduates, which meets once a week as a supplement to a faculty-taught lecture course.

By April of each year, each student must inform the department manager which semesters they are available to teach in the next academic year. Each student is ultimately required to be available to teach for a minimum of four semesters. The student must accept any number of precepts offered in a class during the agreed upon semesters, up to a maximum of three precepts. The requirement that a student be available for teaching is waived once the student has led a minimum of nine preceptorials. Each student is expected to lead preceptorials in at least one undergraduate class as part of satisfying the teaching requirement.

The teaching requirement may be reduced to as few as six preceptorials if a student obtains substantial funding from outside the University or work as a research assistant for a faculty member during an academic year or term. The teaching requirement is reduced to three preceptorials if students graduate within four and a half years or begin a tenure-track job or its equivalent within five years.  The teaching requirement is waived entirely if students graduate within three years or begin a tenure-track job or its equivalent within three and a half years.

Certain fellowships for which post-generals students may be eligible do not allow teaching during the tenure of the fellowship. These include University honorific fellowships, Prize Fellowships of the University Center for Human Values, and the Fellowship of the Woodrow Wilson Society. Students who expect to be candidates for these fellowships are advised to accelerate their teaching so that their teaching obligation will not interfere with their eligibility.

Dissertation and FPO

Before presenting the prospectus in the student’s subfield research seminar, the student should select three advisers for the prospectus.  At least two members of the prospectus committee must be regular members of the politics department.  Before the end of the fifth semester, with the approval of the prospectus committee, each student will present a draft prospectus or first dissertation chapter to the student’s subfield research seminar, if possible with the advisers present. The seminar will function as a workshop where advice can be given about the definition of the topic and plan of research. The prospectus or dissertation chapters should be 12,000-25,000 words. Students are required to secure final acceptance of the prospectus from their advisers before the end of the sixth term of enrollment in order to remain in good standing.

After the prospectus has been approved, students should designate at least two readers to advise the writing of the dissertation.  Students may change this designation as needed.  In order to serve as first or second readers, the advisers must be members of the Princeton faculty at the rank of assistant professor or above, and at least one must be a member of the politics department. During the third, fourth, or fifth year, a third reader is identified by the student in consultation with the first two readers.  Students must first secure the consent of the third reader and submit the name for approval by the director of graduate studies (DGS).  The third reader is normally a Princeton faculty member, but may instead be a faculty member at another university holding the rank of assistant professor or above. Any external readers must be of comparable standing in a relevant branch of the scholarly community.  Third readers are less involved in advising than are the first two readers. The DGS appoints a fourth reader.  Students should submit the names of three appropriate faculty members, along with the title of the dissertation, to the DGS in order to initiate the process of appointing a fourth reader.  The fourth reader is normally a member of the politics department.  The fourth reader is expected to read only the final version of the dissertation.

A final public oral examination is scheduled no fewer than fourteen calendar days after the approval of the thesis.  At least three examiners, two of whom have not served as first or second readers of the dissertation, and at least two of whom are members of the University faculty, conduct the examination.  Normally, therefore, the committee must consist of the first and/or the second reader and the third and fourth readers.  After the student successfully defends their thesis, he or she is recommended to the Graduate School for receipt of a doctoral degree.


  • Chair

    • Alan W. Patten
  • Associate Chair

    • Kristopher W. Ramsay
  • Director of Graduate Studies

    • Mark R. Beissinger
  • Director of Undergraduate Studies

    • Matias Iaryczower
  • Professor

    • Gary J. Bass
    • Mark R. Beissinger
    • Charles R. Beitz
    • Carles Boix
    • Charles M. Cameron
    • Rafaela M. Dancygier
    • Aaron L. Friedberg
    • Paul Frymer
    • Robert P. George
    • Matias Iaryczower
    • G. John Ikenberry
    • John Kastellec
    • Atul Kohli
    • Melissa Lane
    • Frances E. Lee
    • John B. Londregan
    • Stephen J. Macedo
    • Nolan McCarty
    • Tali Mendelberg
    • Helen V. Milner
    • Andrew Moravcsik
    • Layna Mosley
    • Jan-Werner Müller
    • Alan W. Patten
    • Grigore Pop-Eleches
    • Markus Prior
    • Kristopher W. Ramsay
    • Jacob N. Shapiro
    • Arthur Spirling
    • Anna B. Stilz
    • Rocío Titiunik
    • James Raymond Vreeland
    • Leonard Wantchekon
    • Ismail K. White
    • Keith E. Whittington
    • Jennifer A. Widner
    • Deborah J. Yashar
  • Associate Professor

    • Jonathan F. Mummolo
    • LaFleur Stephens-Dougan
    • Rory Truex
    • Hye Young You
  • Assistant Professor

    • Christopher W. Blair
    • Gregory A. Conti
    • German S. Gieczewski
    • Tanushree Goyal
    • Naima N. Green-Riley
    • Andy Guess
    • Saad A. Gulzar
    • Gleason Judd
    • Patricia A. Kirkland
    • Melissa Megan Lee
    • Elizabeth R. Nugent
    • Rebecca L. Perlman
    • Guadalupe Tuñón
    • Andreas B. Wiedemann
    • Xu Xu
  • Associated Faculty

    • Christopher L. Eisgruber, President
    • Daniel Garber, Philosophy
    • Elizabeth L. Paluck, Psychology
    • Philip N. Pettit, Center for Human Values
    • Kim Lane Scheppele, Schl of Public & Int'l Affairs
    • Michael Smith, Philosophy
    • Brandon M. Stewart, Sociology
  • Lecturer with Rank of Professor

    • Allen Carl Guelzo
  • Lecturer

    • Shilo Brooks
    • Tolgahan Dilgin
    • David R. Hill
    • Thomas D. Howes
    • Marzenna James
    • Corrine M. McConnaughy
    • Zeyang Yu
  • Visiting Lecturer

    • Mark O'Brien
    • R.J. Snell
    • Gregory Sullivan

For a full list of faculty members and fellows please visit the department or program website.

Permanent Courses

Courses listed below are graduate-level courses that have been approved by the program’s faculty as well as the Curriculum Subcommittee of the Faculty Committee on the Graduate School as permanent course offerings. Permanent courses may be offered by the department or program on an ongoing basis, depending on curricular needs, scheduling requirements, and student interest. Not listed below are undergraduate courses and one-time-only graduate courses, which may be found for a specific term through the Registrar’s website. Also not listed are graduate-level independent reading and research courses, which may be approved by the Graduate School for individual students.

ECO 520 - Economics and Politics (also POL 577)

Focused on analytical models of political institutions, this course is organized around canonical models and their applications. These include voting models, menu auctions, models of reputation, and cheap talk games. These models are used to explain patterns of participation in elections, institutions of congress, lobbying, payments to special interest groups, and other observed phenomena.

GSS 543 - Interest Groups and Social Movements in American Politics and Policy (also AAS 543/AMS 543/POL 543)

This course engages theoretical and empirical work about interest groups and social movements in American politics and policy-making. We examine theories of interest group and social movement formation, maintenance and decline; how interest groups and social movements attempt to influence public policy; the impact of interest groups and social movements; lobbying; the relationships between interest groups and the three branches of the federal government; interest groups, elections, campaign finance, PACs, and 527s; and the effectiveness of interest groups and social movements as agents of democratic representation.

PHI 503 - Plato's Political Philosophy (Half-Term) (also CLA 530/POL 556)

This course discusses central issues in Plato's Political Philosophy based closely on study of the pertinent Platonic dialogues.

POL 502 - Mathematics for Political Science

Basic mathematical concepts essential for formal and quantitative analysis in political science research. Course prepares students for advanced courses offered in the Department, e.g., Pol 573-576. Topics will include calculus, linear algebra, and probability theory. Some applications to political science will be introduced. The course is aimed for both students with little exposure to mathematics and those who have taken some but wish to gain a more solid foundation. No prerequisite.

POL 503 - Survey Analysis

A reading course on survey design and analysis and a practicum on analyzing survey data. Each student will write a paper based on his or her analysis of previously collected survey data or on original survey data collected by the student. Course open to Politics seniors by permission. (Does not prepare for the General Exam in Formal and Quantitative Analysis.)

POL 505 - Experimental Methods in Political Science

The goal of this course is to introduce students to the theoretical and practical features of experimental political science, particularly natural and field experiments. There is special emphasis on the importance of distinguishing between policy-based and institution-based interventions, with attention given to the promise of the latter for political economy research. Students are introduced to the analysis of experimental results and related econometrics. As the course progresses, students may design an experiment and, subsequently, develop a protocol. Others may choose to replicate the results of well-known experiments.

POL 506 - Qualitative Methods (also SPI 595)

Introduction to techniques used by political scientists in "small-n" research. Discusses the types of theoretical and empirical questions that are associated with in-depth analysis of a small number of cases. The emphasis is on systematic measurements and inferential startegies, including case selection, periodization, structured comparison, analytic narrative, and the integration of qualitative and statistical methods in research design. The course also includes discussion of the mechanics of qualitative research, including field methods, in-depth interviewing, and archival research. (Doesn't prepare for Gen. Exm. in F&Q.)

POL 507 - Topics in Plato (Half-Term) (also CLA 507/HLS 507/PHI 507)

A study of fundamental questions of political theory in Plato¿s works, focusing on one or another of those works (or some part of one or more of them) while attending to the broader thematic and historical frameworks in which they must be interpreted. Topics may include part or all of Plato¿s Apology, Crito, Gorgias, Republic, Statesman, and Laws.

POL 511 - Problems in Political Theory

Selected concepts and problems in political theory. A different topic is treated each year. Topics include justice, equality, liberty, obligation, participation, the nature of political theory, and approaches to interpretation of political theory.

POL 516 - Politics of Middle East Authoritarianism in Comparative Perspective (Half-Term)

This course surveys the major topics in the Politics of the Middle East with an emphasis on the origins and persistence of its authoritarian political regimes. Its purpose is to introduce the main theoretical and conceptual building blocks of the sub-field of Middle East Politics, while focusing on the core theories of authoritarian politics. The course focuses on the intellectual evolution of the field, the dominant theoretical debates and controversies, and the variety of approaches to research within the field. Special attention is given to both case-studies, histories, informal norms, and overall contexts which shape politics in MENA.

POL 517 - International Political Theory

An examination of contemporary controversies in international political philosophy. Topics may include the morality of the use of force, global economics and political justice, theories of human rights, and the relationship between sectional and global values.

POL 518 - Political Philosophy (also PHI 529)

Selected issues or theories of common interest to students in the Department of Politics and in the Department of Philosophy. The course is taught by members of the faculties of the two departments under the auspices of the Program in Political Philosophy.

POL 519 - John Stuart Mill's Politics: Ideas and Context

John Stuart Mill is arguably the most important figure in modern political philosophy. The archetypal liberal, most famous utilitarian, most influential apologist for free speech, architect of feminism, defender of empire, innovative economist. These are just some of his claims to fame. This course provides a detailed introduction to Mill's political thought and places his ideas within several of the contexts most salient to their development. We consider major works as well as lesser-known texts. In addition, this seminar highlights aspects of his career as a journalist, bureaucrat, and politician.

POL 520 - Democracy and Its Enemies (Half-Term)

This course examines how liberal democracies should react to political actors that we might suspect of being opposed to core principles of liberal democracy. The course draws on historical and contemporary material from political theory, public law, and comparative politics.

POL 521 - The Study of Comparative Politics

A general introduction to the field of comparative politics, with an emphasis on principal theoretical approaches and major problems and theories.

POL 524 - Introduction to Critical Theory (Half-Term)

In this seminar students examine traditions of political thought that radically challenge mainstream conceptions of liberal democracy and modern capitalist society. The seminar pays particular attention to the question in what ways such challengers adopt political, economic, and cultural strategies to bring about fundamental change. The seminar concentrates on the early twentieth century to the present.

POL 528 - The Study of Comparative Politics: Institutions and Behavior

This course offers a general introduction to the field of comparative politics at the Ph.D. level, with an emphasis on principal theoretical approaches to the study of political institutions. Topics include powers of executives and legislatures, origins and behavior of parties and party systems, political participation (voting, collective action, social movements), public goods provision, the welfare state, prosperity, federalism & decentralization, and state capacity.

POL 530 - The Politics of Growth & Redistribution

This course is designed to survey and critically discuss contemporary political economy; that is, the set of existing theories that model the impact of political conflict and political institutions on economic performance. The course is structured around the following main issues: the causes of growth; the relationship between openness, political institutions and economic policy-making, the causes and consequences of politically enforced redistribution. The course is analytical in its theoretical perspective and comparative from a methodological point of view.

POL 533 - Clientelism and State Capture

Clientelism has evolved from the analysis of archaic and mostly agrarian political structures to a more general study of opportunistic electoral strategies. It has also become a central debate in comparative politics, on how to turn democratic reforms into better governance and effective development policies. The goal of this course is to document and analyze clientelism and discuss conditions under which it can be replaced with or evolve in programmatic, universalistic and more efficient electoral and policy-making practices.

POL 538 - Comparative Political Behavior

This seminar examines mass political behavior from a comparative perspective. It seeks to explain how people become involved in politics, how they form political opinions, and how their behavior influences political outcomes. The seminar covers a range of behaviors, including learning about politics, information processing, political participation, and voter decision-making. For each of these political behaviors, the purpose of the seminar is to address two questions: What are the causes and consequences of the behavior? To what extent and how do these causes and consequences depend on institutional or cultural/ historical settings?

POL 541 - Judicial Politics

Topics typically include: design of judiciaries and legal systems, doctrinal struggles within judicial hierarchies, bargaining on collegial courts, judicial selection, judicial independence and the rule of law, judicial-legislative relations, interest group activism and rights creation, judicial federalism, politics of administrative law, civil liberties in war time, social consequences of judicial activism.

POL 542 - American Political Institutions

This seminar is part of the two-course sequence of the core curriculum in American politics and provides an introductory survey of American political institutions. Provides an overview of the various problems for which institutional solutions are sought (e.g., problems involving collective action, delegation, and social choice) as well as a detailed assessment of some of the scholarly literature that investigates political institutions.

POL 544 - Introduction to American Politics, Part I: Political Behavior

Public opinion surveys; the origin of political attitudes; conflict and consensus on basic issues; political participation, partisan choice, and other mass behavior; pressure groups; propaganda and the media; the influence of public opinion on governmental policy; and public opinion and democratic theory are studied.

POL 547 - Identity Politics

Is human psychology ¿groupish?¿ How do government institutions like schools, police and elections influence the salience of various ethnic and religious boundaries? This course investigates the relationship between identity, groups and politics in the U.S. and in comparative context. We consider general theories of group identity development; assess empirical approaches to the study of racial and ethnic groups in politics; examine intersections of salient identities; and look at how politically relevant aspects of identity can be measured for conducting original research.

POL 548 - Political Psychology

This course examines psychological perspectives on politics. Themes include human limitation vs. human capacity, how institutions shape or interact with individual opinion and behavior, discussion and deliberation, and the role of groups. We will also discuss methodological issues.

POL 549 - Seminar in American Politics

Selected theoretical problems in American politics.

POL 550 - International Organization

The role of international institutions, including both informal norms and formal organizations. Why do states establish institutions and what determines their design and evolution? Do these institutions merely reflect underlying power and interests? The course will introduce theories of international institutions, evaluate critical perspectives, and examine applications in security, economic, and environmental policy areas.

POL 551 - Seminar in International Politics

Introduces the main theoretical debates and traditions of international relations through intensive reading and discussion of contemporary scholarship.

POL 552 - Seminar in Media and Politics

This course considers the role of the media in politics and the influence of mass and social media on political attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. It examines the nature of news and news-making organizations, the role of the news media in electoral campaigns, how the media shape the behavior of politicians once in office, political advertising, and the ability of social media to facilitate collective action. Students develop literature reviews of existing research and submit an original research paper as the final assignment.

POL 553 - Political Theory, Athens to Augustine: Graduate Seminar (also CLA 535/HLS 552/PHI 552)

A study of fundamental questions of political theory framed in the context of the institutions and writings of ancient Greek and Roman thinkers, from the classical period into late antiquity and the spread of Christianity. Topics include the meaning of justice in Plato's Republic, the definition of the citizen in Aristotle's Politics, Cicero's reflections on the purpose of a commonwealth, and Augustine's challenge to those reflections and to the primacy of political life at all in light of divine purposes. We consider both the primary texts and secondary literature debates to equip students with a working mastery of this tradition.

POL 554 - International Security Studies

Central topics in security studies, including the causes and nature of war, deterrence, alliance formation, military doctrine, civil-military relations, arms competition, and arms control.

POL 561 - Constitutional Theory

The specific focus of the course varies from year to year, but the principal concerns revolve around questions of what a constitutional democracy is, why a people should want to live in such a polity, and how political actors can create, maintain, and change such systems.

POL 563 - Philosophy of Law (also PHI 526)

A systematic study of the salient features of legal systems, standards of legal reasoning, and the relation between law and morals.

POL 565 - Theories of Judicial Review

An introduction to the debate over the legitimacy and proper scope of judicial review and the empirical literature or judicial review and judicial politics, with a goal of connecting debates over what the Court should do with an understanding of what the Court can do and has done.

POL 568 - Hegel and Marx

A close study of two of the leading figures of nineteenth century German political theory, G.W.F. Hegel and Karl Marx. Themes to be discussed in connection with these thinkers include: history, freedom, recognition, property, civil society, modern state, alienation, political economy, exploitation, capitalism, and communism.

POL 570B - Seminar in Formal Theory: American Politics Theory (Half-Term)

This course covers selected topics in modern theories of American politics using game theory. We especially focus on models of elections, legislative bargaining and lobbying. The goal is for students to (1) learn how formal theory has been applied in American politics, (2) identify contributions made by past research and the standards that define high quality work, and (3) critique existing models in ways that highlight avenues for future research. Because the course involves the application of game-theoretic techniques, students must have completed at least POL 575, or its equivalent, as well as the field seminar.

POL 571 - Empirical Research Methods for Political Science

This class is an introduction to research design and statistical methods for empirical analysis targeted to Ph.D. students in Politics and other social sciences. In the first part, the class introduces the potential outcomes framework and how to analyze randomized controlled experiments, including basic statistical tools such as populations and sampling, hypothesis tests, large-sample results, and least squares methods. In the second part, the class covers non-experimental designs, including selection on observables, instrumental variables, and regression discontinuity. Students learn the statistical software R and analyze real datasets.

POL 572 - Quantitative Analysis I

This is the first class of the quantitative methods field in the PhD. in Politics. It is a doctoral-level introduction to foundations of mathematical statistics for Ph.D. students in Politics and other social and behavioral sciences. The class covers rigorous foundations of classical point estimation and statistical inference, as well foundational topics in econometrics. It covers both finite-sample and large-sample theory and relies on linear algebra and multivariate calculus at the level of POL 502. POL 502 or equivalent is a pre-requisite of this class.

POL 573 - Quantitative Analysis II (also SOC 595)

The course builds on the material covered in POL571 and 572 and introduces a variety of statistical techniques including Bayesian methods and causal inference. The goal is to show how to apply these methods to data analysis in political science research. The course is particularly useful, but not exclusively, for students planning to take the Quantitative part of the General Exam in Formal and Quantitative Analysis at Level III. Prerequisite: POL572 or equivalent.

POL 574 - Quantitative Analysis IV

An introduction to the basic analytical and computational tools of applied Bayesian statistics. Methods covered include multi-level models, mixture modeling, Bayesian model averaging, and models for missing data and causal inference; computational tools taught include the EM algorithm and the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. Goal of the course is to enable students to build and implement their own model in order to answer a particular research question. Course may be of interest to those in disciplines outside of political science who need to learn the basics of applied Bayesian statistics.

POL 575 - Formal Political Analysis I

An introduction to mathematical models of political processes. The course develops the analytical foundations for examining problems in collective choice. The technical development focuses on the logical structure of formal models as well as on their use to develop testable hypotheses. The presentation of technical apparatus is combined with a wide range of applications. Topics include models of majority rule, direct and representative democracy, political competition under various electoral systems, and political economy.

POL 576 - Formal Political Analysis II

Further development of the analytical tools used in formal political analysis, with special attention given to the role of information, uncertainty, and dynamics in the design and performance of political institutions. Readings emphasize the current research literature. Typical applications include participation, legislative structure, political campaigns, multiparty government, and the interaction of economics and politics. Prerequisite: 575.

POL 578 - Seminar in Quantitative Analysis

Selected problems in the theory and application of quantitative methods of empirical analysis. Normally its prerequisite is Politics 572 or the equivalent, or by permission of the instructor.

POL 581 - Advanced Political Institutions

Designed to expose students to substantive and methodological controversies that are currently engaging scholars of political institutions. Integrates theoretical and quantitative skills by focusing on the processes of extracting hypotheses from formal models, stating hypotheses in a manner conducive to tests, collecting data, conducting tests, and making inferences. Assumes prior completion of POL 542.

POL 584 - Foundations of Political Economy (also ECO 576)

Course focuses on modeling the interaction of politics and economics, with applications to a variety of substantive areas. Topics include: poltics of taxation and redistribution; governmental structure, political economy of constitutional arrangements, development, and growth. Familiarity with microeconomic theory and POL 575 or the equivalent are prerequisites.

POL 585 - International Political Economy

An introduction to the subfield of international political economy, covering basic topics in the politics of both trade and finance. Course will review, for example, several explanations political scientists and economists have advanced for variations across trade and monetary systems since the late nineteenth century. Also examines relevant issues at the nation-state level (e.g., endogenous tariff theory). This course provides some background in the requisite economic theory in the form of a set of required background readings drawn from an advanced undergraduate textbook.

POL 588 - Political Theory of French Revolution

The objective of this course is to understand the political theories at the core of the French Revolution - both the ideas that set it in motion, and the novel thinking about democracy, equality, representation, and dictatorship that emerged from it. To this end we read a diverse range of texts. We discuss: the theories that flourished in the decades before the revolution and that laid the foundations for it; texts from the major thinkers and actors of the revolutionary period; and responses to the Revolution from liberal and non-liberal thinkers in the nineteenth century. All texts are available in English translation.

POL 589 - States, Democracies, Nations

This course surveys major topics and theoretical contributions in the construction of political order, the choice of constitutional regimes and the sources of citizens¿ compliance. The courses examines: the formation and development of the modern state; democracy; authoritarianism; revolution and political stability; legitimacy and compliance; nationalism; and macro theories of political change. With the explicit goal of exploring how research in comparative politics should be pursued in the future, each session assigns readings from both traditional macrohistorical and qualitative research and more recent analytical models.

POL 591 - Directed Research

During the third semester, each student writes a research paper under the direction of a faculty member.

POL 592 - Social Movements and Revolutions

Explores the study of social movements and mobilized collective action aimed at achieving or preventing social and political change. After examining various theoretical approaches to the field, the course investigates a number of issues of abiding concern within the study of contentious politics: repertoires, networks, government responses to protest (repression and concessions), and protest policing. The final portion of the course is devoted to the study of the causes, dynamics and effects of revolutions.

POL 593 - Research Seminar

Enrolled graduate students in residence will attend one of these seminars each year and present their research. First-year students sign up for 593; second-year students for 594; third-year students for 595; and fourth-year students for 596. The seminars are offered in four fields: political philosophy, comparative politics, American politics, and international relations.

POL 594 - Research Seminar

Enrolled graduate students in residence will attend one of these seminars each year and present their research. First-year students sign up for 593; second-year students for 594; third-year students for 595; and fourth-year students for 596. The seminars are offered in four fields: political philosophy, comparative politics, American politics, and international relations.

POL 595 - Research Seminar

Enrolled graduate students in residence will attend one of these seminars each year and present their research. First-year students sign up for 593; second-year students for 594; third-year students for 595; and fourth-year students for 596. The seminars are offered in four fields: political philosophy, comparative politics, American politics, and international relations.

POL 596 - Research Seminar

Enrolled graduate students in residence will attend one of these seminars each year and present their research. First-year students sign up for 593; second-year students for 594; third-year students for 595; and fourth-year students for 596. The seminars are offered in four fields: political philosophy, comparative politics, American politics, and international relations.

POL 597 - Research Seminars

Enrolled graduate students in residence will attend one of these seminars each year and present their research. First-year students sign up for 593; second-year students for 594; third-year students for 595; fourth-year students for 596; and fifth-year students for 597. The seminars are offered in four fields: political philosophy, comparative politics, American politics, and international relations.

POL 599 - Responsible Conduct of Research in Political Science

This seminar is concerned with the professional obligations of political science researchers. This course is designed to raise those concerns and develop in students an appreciation for the issues that they might confront as they do their work. Topics addressed includes the relationship of political science as an academic discipline to democratic politics and institutions, advocacy and objectivity in political science, plagiarism and academic misconduct, human subjects and fieldwork in research, institutional review boards, funding sources and intellectual integrity, collaboration, and mentoring.

SPI 556B - Topics in IR (also LAS 566/POL 564)

Courses that examine particular issues in international relations. Topics vary according to the interests of the students and the instructors. Fall term courses are numbered 555; spring term courses are numbered 556.

SPI 556D - Topics in IR (also POL 522)

Courses that examine particular issues in international relations. Topics vary according to the interests of the students and the instructors. Fall term courses are numbered 555; spring term courses are numbered 556.

SPI 561 - The Comparative Political Economy of Development (also POL 523)

Political change and the operation of political institutions in the development process. The course emphasizes the interaction of political and economic factors. Various definitions and theories of political development are examined and tested against different economic, ethnic, geographic, and social contexts.

SPI 590B - Politics of Inequality and Redistribution (Half-Term) (also POL 598)

Policy preferences, differential rates of political participation, voting behavior, the legislative process, political communication, urban politics and the role of race in American political life are central to the study of inequality in politics. Although the American case features prominently, we approach these issues from a comparative perspective. The course provides introduction to comparative study of welfare states and political economy of advanced industrial countries, including regulation of labor markets and relationship between wage inequality, income distribution and policy preferences for redistribution and social protection.

SPI 595B - PhD Seminar: Qualitative Research Design (also POL 509)

This is a course in research design. We will discuss some issues in the philosophy of science, then analyze questions of conceptualization, proceeding to problems of descriptive inference, objectivity, and causal inference, including the role of causal mechanisms. The seminar will continue with analysis of how to avoid bias, then tackle issues of historical change. Students will present their own research designs and critique those of their colleagues. Emphasis will be on qualitative research, but the argument underlying the seminar is that the same basic principles of inference apply to qualitative and quantitative research, and that the