Civil and Environmental Engineering Academic Year 2023 – 2024 Jump To: Jump To: General Information Address Engineering Quadrangle Phone 609-258-5539 Website Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Program Offerings: Ph.D. M.S.E. Director of Graduate Studies: Mark A. Zondlo Graduate Program Administrator: Minmin Fan Overview The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering offers two graduate degrees: Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and Master of Science in Engineering (M.S.E.). Students must be admitted to one of these two degree programs. For each of these degree programs, the department offers individualized tracks of graduate study that are aligned with the following research areas: Mechanics, Materials, and Structures Architecture, Arts, and Archaeology Hydrology and the Atmospheric Environment Sustainable, Resilient Cities and Infrastructure Systems Chemistry, Biology, and Technology Water, Climate, and Energy The student-faculty ratio in the department is kept small to allow for productive working relationships between students and their advisers. The department maintains an atmosphere where close interaction between students and faculty is the norm, whereby students benefit from the background, experience, and knowledge their advisers have gained in solving important engineering problems. Apply Application deadline January 3, 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (This deadline is for applications for enrollment beginning in fall 2024) Program length Ph.D. 5 years, M.S.E. 2 years Fee $75 GRE General Test - optional/not required Additional departmental requirements Applicants are required to select an area of research interest when applying. Program Offerings Ph.D. M.S.E. Program Offering: Ph.D. Program description When a Ph.D. student enters the department, an adviser is assigned to the student based on the student's area of interest. Every admitted Ph.D. student is given financial support in the form of a first-year fellowship. In addition, all admitted Ph.D. students are automatically considered for the prestigious Wu and Upton Fellowships. Courses Demonstrated proficiency in appropriate coursework is required for the Ph.D. degree. Most of this coursework needs to be completed prior to the General Examination. Courses required for admission to the General Examination are as follows: CEE 509 - Independent Study I CEE 510 - Independent Study II 2 applied mathematics or computational methods courses 6 additional courses covering depth in, and breadth around, one's research CEE 509 and 510: The CEE 509/510 requirements are meant to demonstrate the requisite abilities to carry out advanced independent research. These requirements must be completed by the end of the semester of the General Examination. Applied mathematics or computational methods: The mathematics/computational methods requirements are meant to provide a strong foundation in quantitative skills. The requirement may be fulfilled by courses in advanced calculus, probability, data science, statistics, numerical methods, scientific computation, or related fields. Specialized knowledge courses: Each student must complete at least three courses that focus on the student's specific research. These courses are directly related to the foundational knowledge of the Ph.D. thesis research, and they ensure that the student has a firm grasp of relevant fundamentals. At least three specialized knowledge courses must be completed by the end of the semester of the General Examination. The breadth of knowledge courses: In addition to taking courses in specialized subjects, students must broaden their education beyond the intellectual boundaries of their own research. This is important for success in future academic or non-academic careers, given the complexity of modern civil and environmental challenges and the need for interdisciplinary teams to solve them. To be active members or future leaders of such teams, students must be able to converse and understand a range of issues, concepts, and approaches that are far wider than their detailed research specialization. Each student must demonstrate proficiency in at least three "breadth" courses. These courses must cover multiple areas outside the student’s core research area. One of the breadth courses may be taken after the General Examination. Grade requirements: All required Ph.D. coursework must be taken for a grade (no P/D/F, no audit). The average grade of all graduate courses in the student’s overall program of study must a "B" (3.00) or better. General exam Students are expected to take the general examination within the first two years of Ph.D. studies. Students are not normally readmitted to a third year (fifth term) of graduate study unless they have taken the General Examination. No student will be readmitted to a fourth year (seventh term) of graduate study without successful completion of the General Examination. In cases where equivalent and relevant graduate coursework has been completed before enrollment as a Ph.D. student at Princeton, a student may propose to use that prior coursework to satisfy one or more course requirements and demonstrate coursework proficiency. A student must submit to the DGS a copy of the syllabus and other supporting material for review by CEE faculty before submitting the General Exam Request Form. This material must be submitted by the end of the first semester of Ph.D. study at Princeton. Note that prior coursework from undergraduate studies, even if taken at the graduate level, is unlikely to be approved as a substitute for the coursework requirements. General Examination Request form: The General Exam Request Form consists of the student's plan to meet the coursework proficiency requirements, the title of the Ph.D. research, and the research abstract. The form, normally submitted in the semester before taking the General Examination, is reviewed by CEE faculty to ensure demonstrated proficiency in relevant subject areas. For plans that are not approved, feedback is given to the student to modify the plan. Once approved, any deviations from the approved coursework plan must be submitted to the faculty adviser and DGS. A full review by the CEE faculty may be required for substantial coursework changes. Research Proposal: A dissertation research proposal is due to the Graduate Program Administrator in advance of the General Examination. This document forms the basis of the student's General Examination oral presentation. It must demonstrate adequate background knowledge, clear and concise communication skills, and the ability to plan and formulate a research project. Examination Structure: The General Examination Committee consists of four to six examiners, of whom at least three are CEE faculty members. The student’s adviser normally chairs the Committee. The General Examination is scheduled for up to three hours and is conducted as an oral examination. The General Examination consists of a presentation by the student, followed by questioning from the committee on the presentation material, as well as broader topics related to the student’s research preparation. The basis of the presentation must be the written Research Proposal. The presentation will typically last 30-40 minutes. The General Examination Committee provides a written evaluation to the DGS of the sufficiency of the student's preparation and knowledge to undertake the proposed dissertation research. Qualifying for the M.A. The Master of Arts (M.A.) degree is normally an incidental degree on the way to full Ph.D. candidacy. It is earned after a student successfully completes the required coursework and the general examination. It may also be awarded to students who, for various reasons, leave the Ph.D. program, provided that the coursework requirements have been met and the sections of the general exam showing proficiency and scholarship have been passed. In such cases, it is not required that students have completed the part of the general exam involving a research seminar based on a dissertation proposal. Students admitted to the Ph.D. program who do not wish to complete the program may be considered for an M.S.E. degree with approval from the department and the Graduate School. Ph.D. students who have already been awarded the incidental M.A. are not eligible to earn an M.S.E. Teaching Teaching experience is considered to be a significant part of graduate education. It is recommended that Ph.D. candidates assist with course instruction for at least one term. Post-Generals requirements Yearly Meetings with Research Committee Upon completing the general examination, students must have a research committee consisting of the adviser and two or more additional faculty members. The research committee meets with the candidate at least once per academic year to supervise the research and provide feedback. Dissertation and FPO Final public oral (FPO) examination: Upon completion and acceptance of the dissertation by the Department, the candidate will be admitted to the final public oral examination. The Ph.D. is awarded after the candidate’s doctoral dissertation has been accepted and the final public oral examination sustained. Program Offering: M.S.E. Program description The M.S.E. program has a strong research focus, including coursework, culminating with the requirement of an M.S.E. thesis. The M.S.E. is usually completed within two academic years of full-time study. Financial support in the form of a research or a teaching assistantship may be available for students enrolled in this program. Courses The course requirements are fulfilled by successfully completing 10 one-semester courses, two of which are the required research courses (CEE 509 Independent Study I and CEE 510 Independent Study II). The M.S.E. degree is usually completed within two academic years of full-time study. Thesis The M.S.E. program has a strong research focus reflected in the requirement of a master’s thesis. By the second term of study, a committee consisting of the adviser and one additional faculty member is formed to guide and supervise the candidate's thesis research. Candidates must prepare and submit an acceptable thesis as well as present an open seminar on their research. Faculty Chair Branko Glisic Director of Graduate Studies Mark A. Zondlo Director of Undergraduate Studies Ian C. Bourg (acting) Professor Sigrid M. Adriaenssens Elie R. Bou-Zeid Michael A. Celia Maria E. Garlock Branko Glisic Peter R. Jaffé Ning Lin Denise L. Mauzerall Reed M. Maxwell Glaucio H. Paulino Catherine A. Peters Amilcare M. Porporato Anu Ramaswami Z. Jason Ren Gabriele Villarini Mark A. Zondlo Associate Professor Ian C. Bourg Claire E. White Assistant Professor Jürgen Hackl Ryan S. Kingsbury Jyotirmoy Mandal Reza Moini Associated Faculty Luc Deike, Mechanical & Aerospace Eng Lars O. Hedin, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Marcus N. Hultmark, Mechanical & Aerospace Eng Michael G. Littman, Mechanical & Aerospace Eng Forrest M. Meggers, Architecture Satish C. Myneni, Geosciences Guy J.P. Nordenson, Architecture Bess Ward, Geosciences Gerard Wysocki, Electrical & Comp Engineering Lecturer Thomas P. Roddenbery Shixi Zang Tuo Zhao Visiting Professor William Arnold Stefano Gonella Visiting Lecturer Angela M. Fasnacht Michael Hopper For a full list of faculty members and fellows please visit the department or program website. Permanent Courses Courses listed below are graduate-level courses that have been approved by the program’s faculty as well as the Curriculum Subcommittee of the Faculty Committee on the Graduate School as permanent course offerings. Permanent courses may be offered by the department or program on an ongoing basis, depending on curricular needs, scheduling requirements, and student interest. Not listed below are undergraduate courses and one-time-only graduate courses, which may be found for a specific term through the Registrar’s website. Also not listed are graduate-level independent reading and research courses, which may be approved by the Graduate School for individual students. CEE 505 - Probability and Statistics for Civil and Environmental Engineering This course covers applications of probability and statistics to civil and environmental engineering. The course focuses on statistical methods that are relevant in research, such as how to design experiments to maximize inference potential, how to infer mathematical models from measurements, and how to draw defensible conclusions from datasets. Topics include analysis of variance, parameter estimation, regression analysis, nonparametric testing, probability models and spatial statistics. CEE 507 - Independent Study I Under the direction of a faculty member, each student carries out an independent study. Prior to course registrato, the student must complete the departmental Graduate Independent Study form by describing the work being undertaken, and have the form approved by the supervising faculty member and the director of graduate studies. 507 Fall, 508 Spring. CEE 508 - Independent Study II Under the direction of a faculty member, each student carries out an independent study. Prior to course registration, the student must complete the departmental Graduate Independent Study form by describing the work being undertaken, and have the form approved by the supervising facutly member and the director of graduate studies. Open only to graduate students. 507 Fall; 508 Spring. CEE 509 - Directed Research Under the direction of a faculty member, each student carries out research and presents the results. Directed research is normally taken during the first year of study. CEE 510 - Research Seminar This seminar is a continuation of CEE 509. Each student writes a report and presents research results. For doctoral students, the course must be completed one semester prior to taking general examinations. CEE 511 - Design of Large-Scale Structures: Buildings The design of large-scale buildings is considered from the conceptual phase up to the final design phase. The following issues are addressed in this course: building types, design codes, design of foundations, choice of different structural systems to resist vertical and horizontal loads, choice between different materials (steel versus concrete), design for wind and earthquake loading, construction management, and financial and legal considerations are examined in detail. Several computer codes for analysis and design of buildings are used in this course. CEE 513 - Introduction to Finite-element Methods Basic concepts of matrix structural analysis. Direct stiffness method. Axial force member. Beam bending member. Formation of element stiffness matrix. Assembling of global stiffness matrix. Introduction of boundary conditions. Solution of linear algebraic equations. Special analysis procedures. The finite-element method. Introduction. Basic formulation. Plane stress and plane strain problems. Plate bending problems. The use of structural analysis and finite-element computer codes is emphasized throughout the course. CEE 515 - Geotechnical Engineering Introduction to geotechnical/foundation engineering, subsurface material types and their properties, character of natural deposits, techniques of subsurface investigation, stability of slopes, earth retaining structures, types of foundation and methods of construction, design of shallow foundations (footings and raft/mat foundations), design of deep foundations (piles and caissons), ground impprovement techniques, use of computers in geotechnical engineering. CEE 519 - Geometry and Elasticity in Plates and Shells In this course we develop the mechanics of thin 2D bodies from an integrated mathematical and physical perspective. Under specific loading conditions, thin bodies can experience large non-linear deformations, even if the material properties remain linear. The course emphasizes the elasticity of these bodies in connection with their geometry. By using orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, vector calculus, differential equations and energy methods, we derive theory to give detailed, fully explicit solutions to these problems and apply this theory to real-life situations. CEE 525 - Applied Numerical Methods Introduction to a broad spectrum of numerical methods for the analysis of typical mathematics, physics, or engineering problems. Topics covered include: error analysis, interpolation and polynomial approximation, numerical differentiation and integration, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. CEE 530 - Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics (also MAE 560/MSE 530) The course covers the fundamentals of the mechanics and thermodynamics of continua. It reviews concepts of tensor analysis on manifolds and tensor calculus. It then proceeds by developing the fundamental concepts of the kinematics of a deforming continuum. The notion of stress is then introduced and measures of stresses are discussed. Conservation of mass, balance of momentum and moment of momentum, conservation of energy in thermodynamic are discussed. Constitutive theories and the restriction of the second law are presented. The Euler-Lagrange equations are re-connected with balance laws. CEE 533 - Seminar in Advanced Elasticity The governing equations of the three-dimensional theory of linear elasticity; compatibility conditions and uniqueness theorem of solutions; the tensor stress functions and Boussinesq-Papkovitch displacement potentials; applications to the 3-D static-boundary value problems; orthogonal curvilinear coordinates; and the theory of thin elastic shells. CEE 535 - Statistical Mechanics II: Methods (also CBE 525) Statistical mechanics provides a microscopic basis for calculating the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of matter. The course aims to provide engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, and geologists with working knowledge of the fundamentals and applications of statistical mechanics. Part two covers modern theoretical and computational techniques. CEE 537 - Structural Health Monitoring Structural Health Monitoring is a relatively new, interdisciplinary branch of engineering. This course introduces the topic with basic definitions of measurement and monitoring, monitoring activities and entities, and with various available and emerging monitoring technologies. The fundamental criteria for applications on concrete, steel and composite materials are elaborated, and the basics on data interpretation and analysis for both static and dynamic monitoring are presented. Finally methods applicable to large spectrum of civil structures, such as bridges, buildings, geo structures, and large structures are developed. CEE 538 - Holistic Analysis of Heritage Structures (also ART 538) Heritage structures represent an important cultural legacy. First, this course identifies particularities relative to structural analysis of heritage structures; it correlates the space and time (where and when the structure was built, used, upgraded, damaged, repaired), with construction materials, techniques, and contemporary architectural forms. Second, the course presents the methods of structural analysis that take into account the identified particularities, that are efficient in finding solutions, and that are simple and intuitive in terms of application and interpretation. CEE 539 - Special Topics in MMS Advanced topics in structures and mechanics or the investigation of problems of current interest. CEE 540 - Special Topics in MMS Advanced topics in structures and mechanics or the investigation of problems of current interest. CEE 545 - Origami Engineering (also MAE 556/MSE 535) This class acquaints the student with the state-of-art concepts and algorithms to design and analyze origami systems (assemblies, structures, tessellations, etc). Students learn how to understand, create and transform geometries by folding and unfolding concepts, and thus apply origami concepts to solve engineering and societal problems. In addition, using origami as a tool, we outreach to some fundamental concepts in differential geometry. CEE 546 - Form Finding of Structural Surfaces (also ARC 566) The course looks at the most inventive structures and technologies, demonstrating their use of form finding techniques in creating complex curved surfaces. The first part introduces the topic of structural surfaces, tracing the ancient relationship between innovative design and construction technology and the evolution of surface structures. The second part familiarizes the student with membranes(systems, form finding techniques,materials and construction techniques) The third part focuses on rigid surfaces. The fourth part provides a deeper understanding of numerical form finding techniques. CEE 566 - Wind Engineering and Structural Dynamics Introduction of wind effects on the built environment. Topics include: the nature of wind storms, tropical cyclones and climate change, prediction of design wind speeds and structural safety, strong wind characteristics and turbulence, basic bluff-body aerodynamics, resonant dynamic response and effective static load distributions, wind tunnel experiments, tall buildings, low-rise buildings, windborne debris, wind loading codes and standards, wind-induced storm surge, wind and surge damage. CEE 567 - Advanced Design and Behavior of Steel Structures Advanced topics in the design and analysis of steel structures are considered including: plastic analysis, ductile lateral systems, behavior and design for fire, and local and global stability issues. CEE 568 - Advanced Design and Behavior of Concrete Structures This class covers advanced topics related to the design and behavior of concrete structures. A quick review of topics covered in the undergraduate course on concrete design is given followed by more advanced topics such as torsion, slender columns, two-way slabs, and prestressed concrete. CEE 571 - Environmental Chemistry (also ENV 571) A focus on organic pollutants in the environment through study of the theoretical basis for chemical, physicochemical, and microbiological processes. This foundation is used to explain chemical property estimation methods for phonemena such as phase partitioning, diffusion, and biodegradation. These processes are examined with respect to their implications for remediation technologies. CEE 573 - Environmental Issues Seminar (also GEO 525) Current problems in environmental sciences. Element cycles; geochemistry-biotic interactions, human impacts on the environment. A new topic is chosen every semester. Recent topics have included: the global carbon cycle, alternative energies, biodiversity, and genetically modified organisms. CEE 575 - Interfacial Waters in Natural Systems This course presents an overview of current research on the behavior of interfacial waters in natural systems. Sub-topics include adsorption at water-solid and water-air interfaces, the thermodynamics of adsorbed water films, interfacial mass transfer, interfacial energy and wetting, colloidal aggregation in saturated and unsaturated soils, surface waters, and the atmosphere. The course focuses particularly on insights gained from the combination of experiments, atomistic simulation, and geochemical models. CEE 576 - Water Quality Modeling and Analysis The construction and solution of water-quality models for transport and transformation of pollutants in surface runoff, streams, lakes, estuaries, and groundwaters; and the basic principles of water quality modeling. The course reviews existing models and the utility and appropriateness of various modeling techniques for analysis and prediction. CEE 581 - Theory of Groundwater Flow Fundamental physics of fluid flow and contaminant transport in porous media; derivation of governing equations; analytical solution of simplified equations, with application to well hydraulics; and parameter estimation and analysis of field problems. The course examines the application of numerical models and gives an introduction to multiphase flow systems and advanced methods for equation development. CEE 582 - Advanced Groundwater Modeling Advanced treatment of fluid flow and contaminant transport innatural porous media; gives a comparison of the methodologies for deriving porous media equations, including volume averaging and stochastic methods; and explores the development of numerical methods for various flow and transcport systems, the influence of heterogeneity and scale issues, and the use of numberical models to study scale effects in unsaturated flow, multiphase flow, and reactive transport. Some familiarity with numerical methods is assumed. Prerequisite: 581. CEE 586 - Physical Hydrology (also ENV 586) Problems in surface hydrology, based upon the underlying physics. Precipitation and evapotranspiration; mechanisms of surface runoff generation; propagation of flood waves overland and in channels; and water balance modeling are studied. CEE 587 - Ecohydrology (also ENV 587) A description of the hydrologic mechanisms that underlie ecological observations. The space-time dynamics of soil-plant-atmosphere is studied at different temporal and spatial scales. A review is done of the role of environmental fluctuations in the distribution of vegetation. Emphasis is made in the dynamics of soil moisture. The signatures revealing fractal structures in landscapes and vegetation are reviewed as result of self-organizing dynamics. Unifying concepts in the processes responsible for these signatures will be studied with examples from hydrology and ecology. CEE 588 - Boundary Layer Meteorlogy This course covers the basic dynamics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and how it interacts with other environmental and geophysical flows. Topics to be covered include: mean, turbulence, and higher order flow equations, turbulence closure models for the ABL, similarity theories, surface exchanges and their impact on the stability of the atmosphere, the different ABL flow regimes, its role in the hydrologic cycle, the fundamentals of scalar (pollutant, water vapor, etc) transport, modeling and measurement approaches for the ABL, and the role and representation of the ABL in large-scale atmospheric flows and models. CEE 591 - Radar Hydrometeorology Remote sensing of precipitation and the hydrometerology of precipitation are the paired topics of this course.The fundamentals of radar remote sensing are introduced. Propagation and the scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves are covered. Principles of Doppler radar are introduced, followed by techniques for measurement of precipitation and winds. The structure and evolution of precipitating cloud systems are covered as well. CEE 593 - Aerosol Chemistry and Physics (also AOS 593) This course focuses on ground-based and satellite observations of aerosol particles and their impacts on climate through modeling studies. Course material includes satellite and ground-based measurements of aerosol particles, mathematical formulation of transport, and numerical models of aerosol distribution. It studies how aerosols impact climate change through direct and indirect effects including cloud-aerosol interactions. CEE 595 - Extramural Summer Research Project Summer research project designed in conjuction with the students's advisor and an industrial, NGO, or government sponsor that will provide practical experience relevant to the student's research area. Start date no ealrier than June 1. A final paper is required. CEE 596 - Extramural Research Project Research project designed in conjunction with the student's advisor and an industrial, NGO, or government sponsor that will provide practical experience relevant to the student's research area. A final paper is required. CEE 598 - Special Topics in Sustainable, Resilient Cities and Infrastructure Systems (also ENV 598) Advanced studies in selected areas of sustainable, resilient cities and infrastructure systems. Special topics vary according to the instructor's and the students' interests. CEE 599 - Special Topics in Environmental Engineering and Water Resources (also ENE 599) Advanced studies in selected areas of water resources. Special topics vary according to the instructor's and the students' interests. CEE 599A - Special Topics in Environmental Engineering and Water Resources (also ENV 599) Use of probability and statistics for hydrologic mideling and analysis. This methods- based course includes: probability models, including the L- Moment parameter estimation method; estimating bivariate distributions using copulas, time series analysis, spatial data analysis using kriging, as well as principle components ( empirical orthogonal functions, EOF), Monte Carlo simulation and hydrologic forecasting. The course involves readings from the stochastic hydrology literature and hands on computer analysis and simulation. CEE 599B - Special Topics in Environmental Engineering and Water Resources This course will provide a survey of current research topics at the intersection between plant ecology and surface hydrology. We will explore scientific questions and debates related to (1) eco-physiological constraints on water movement in plants, (2) environmental and biological determinants of transpiration and evaporation, (3) the manner by which hydrological processes mediate terrestrial biogeochemical processes, and (4) the extent to which hydrological and ecological dynamics interact to govern vegetation form and function. ENE 504 - Membrane Separations for Energy and the Environment (also CEE 504) This course explores the fundamentals and applications of selective membrane technology to water purification, waste treatment, and clean energy processes. The course comprises three sections covering 1) low-pressure (ultrafiltration or microfiltration), 2) high-pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) and 3) ion exchange membranes. In each section, we review one or more specific applications of that type of membrane to water, wastewater, or energy, and discuss the primary mechanisms by which the membranes accomplish filtration, connections between membrane chemistry, morphology, and performance, and basic process design principles. ENE 506 - Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques for Energy Materials (also CBE 566/CEE 506/MAE 536/MSE 586) Topics include an introduction to radiation generation at synchrotron and neutron facilities, elastic scattering techniques, inelastic scattering techniques, imaging and spectroscopy. Specific techniques include X-ray and neutron diffraction, small-angle scattering, inelastic neutron scattering, reflectometry, tomography, microscopy, fluorescence and infrared imaging, and photoemission spectroscopy. Emphasis is placed on application of the techniques for uncovering the material structure-property relationship, including energy storage devices, sustainable concrete, CO2 storage, magnetic materials, mesostructured materials and nanoparticles. GEO 523 - Geomicrobiology (also CEE 572) Relationships between low temperature geochemistry and microbiology. Applications of newly developed molecular biological techniques and isotope geochemical methods and how these approaches can be used to determine the physiological state of microorganisms. Each student is expected to make a research presentation to the seminar. Visiting scholars and faculty members from other departments may occasionally contribute guest lectures to the seminar. MSE 501 - Introduction to Materials (also CBE 514/CEE 561/MAE 561) Emphasizes the connection between microstructural features of materials (e.g., grain size, boundary regions between grains, defects) and their properties, and how processing conditions control structure. Topics include thermodynamics and phase equilibria, microstructure, diffusion, kinetics of phase transitions, nucleation and crystal growth, phase separation, spinodal decomposition, glass formation, and the glass transition. MSE 517 - Structural and Material Optimization (also CEE 517/MAE 571) This class addresses the practical aspects, theory, implementation and utilization of optimization in conjunction with analysis tools. It aims to acquaint the student with the state-of-the-art optimization techniques and their application to engineering problems. Besides traditional methods, it introduces the modern and powerful topology optimization method together with its application to material and structural systems. In this context, it also introduces rapid prototyping and 3D/4D printing techniques at different scales.