Architecture Academic Year 2022 – 2023 Jump To: General Information Address Architecture Building Website School of Architecture Program Offerings: Ph.D. M.Arch. Director of Graduate Studies: Beatriz Colomina (Ph.D.) Marshall Brown (M.Arch.) Graduate Program Administrator: Daniel Claro Overview The School of Architecture, Princeton’s center for teaching and research in architectural design, history, and theory, offers advanced degrees at both the master’s and the doctoral levels. The curriculum for the master’s degree, which has both a professional and a post-professional track, emphasizes design expertise in the context of architectural scholarship. Architecture is understood as a cultural practice involving both speculative intelligence and practical know-how. Each student constructs a personal course of study around a core of required courses that represents the knowledge essential to the education of an architect today. The five-year doctoral program focuses on the history, theory, and criticism of architecture, urbanism, landscape, and building technology. The approach is interdisciplinary, covering a broad range of research interests from an architectural perspective. Working closely with the faculty of the school and allied departments in the University, students build individual programs of study involving at least two years of course work, general examinations, and a dissertation. In 2014, the School of Architecture launched a new computation and energy Ph.D. track. The new track focuses on developing and researching new techniques of embodied computation and new systems for energy and environmental performance. It is supported by connections to the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the Department of Computer Science and the Andlinger Center for Energy and Environment. With the addition of new courses and curricula for the computation and energy track, and with the acquisition of industrial robotic arms and the renovation of the Embodied Computation Laboratory (also known as the Architectural Laboratory), students will actively contribute to hands-on applied research in architecture while becoming experts in their field. Apply Application deadline January 3, 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (This deadline is for applications for enrollment beginning in fall 2023) Program length Ph.D. 5 years, M.Arch. 2 years (Post-Professional) or 3 years (Professional) Fee $75 GRE General Test - Ph.D. Optional/not required; Master's - Optional/not required Additional departmental requirements Ph.D. – At least three samples of written work published or unpublished. In the statement of academic purpose, candidates must describe professional and academic experience and its relevance to future plans for research and teaching. Also outline potential areas of research in the context of Princeton’s program. Applicants are required to select a subplan when applying. M.Arch. – Design portfolio, bound, not to exceed 8.5" x 11", no slides, CDs, or loose sheets. Portfolios of admitted applicants will be retained. An electronic version of this portfolio must also be uploaded with the application. Portfolios must be postmarked by January 3 and received by January 11. Please note: If you are tracking the delivery of your package, Graduate Admission will be closed December 23 - January 2. Normal hours will resume on Monday, January 3. Please avoid special packaging as this delays the processing of your materials and does not increase your opportunity for admission. Be sure to include your full name, date of birth, and department on all materials sent. Please mail these materials to: Princeton University Graduate Admission ATTN: Portfolios One Clio Hall Princeton, NJ 08544 Materials submitted will become the property of Princeton University. Program Offerings Ph.D. M.Arch. Program description History and Theory Track The interdisciplinary nature of the doctoral (Ph.D.) program stresses the relationship of architecture, urbanism, landscape, and building technologies to their cultural, social, and political milieu. Supported by strong affiliations with other departments in the humanities, sciences, and social sciences, the program has developed a comprehensive approach to the study of the field. Students interact with their peers to sustain their individual projects in a context of collective research. Computation and Energy Track The technology Ph.D. track develops research in the field of embodied computation and new systems for energy and environmental performance. Through associated faculty it is linked to the School of Engineering and Applied Science, particularly with Computer Science and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment. A proseminar for the Ph.D. track supports the initial methods and processes for this research. The applied research component of the track is supported by infrastructure including an industrial robotic arm located in the School of Architecture’s Embodied Computation Lab and research facilities in the Andlinger Center. Courses History and Theory Track Course requirements for each student are determined by the Ph.D. Program Committee according to students’ previous experience, specialized interests, and progress through the program. For the first two years, each student engages in course work and independent study and is required to take a minimum of four classes each term, including required language and independent reading courses, for a total of 16 courses. In the first year of residence, a required two-term proseminar introduces students to historical research and methodological approaches and guides the development of individual research proposals. The minimum number of courses are reduced by one when a student serves as an assistant-in-instruction (AI). This does not reduce the number of required papers; the AI assignment replaces an audited course. Computation and Energy Track Course requirements for each student are determined by the Ph.D. Program Committee according to the student’s previous experience, specialized interests, and progress through the program. During the first year of residence, a two-term proseminar introduces students to the process of developing prototype-based research, the literature review process, and methods for innovative scientific hypothesis generation and analysis. It also guides the development of individual research proposals. The course requirements for each student are set by the Ph.D. Program Committee according to the student’s previous experience, specialized interests, and progress through the program. The course load consists of a total of sixteen courses, nine of which have to be taken for credit, including two required proseminar courses during the first two years of study. Extending the reach of previous coursework, four research projects have to be developed, documented in paper format, and submitted as a package for the general examination once coursework is completed. The coursework must have an interdisciplinary focus that supports the student in developing expertise in an area of research as an extension of the architectural core that serves as the basis for developing a dissertation proposal. Language(s) A student must satisfy the program requirement of a reading knowledge of two foreign languages before the end of the second year in residence. These languages should be relevant to the general history of the discipline or specifically relevant to the student’s area of research. An examination of comprehension is administered by the appropriate language department. Additional pre-generals requirements Each year in mid-May, doctoral students are expected to present a progress report for review with the Ph.D. Program Committee. The purpose of these oral reviews is to give feedback to the student and to keep all members of the Ph.D. Committee informed about the work of all students. The progress report should list courses taken for grades or audit, papers completed or in progress, grades received, and a description of how courses relate to the student’s major and minor fields of concentration. The report should also note conferences attended, lectures given, teaching and/or research assistantships. Second-year reports incorporate a prospectus on the materials to be included in the general examination dossier. The prospectus includes a list of six papers (History and Theory track) or four research project reports (Computation and Energy track) to be included in the general examination dossier accompanied by a statement connecting this research and writing to the student’s major and minor fields of concentration. General exam The general examination is designed to ascertain the student’s general knowledge of the subject, acquaintance with scholarly methods of research, and ability to organize and present material. The components of the general examination are assembled sequentially during the student’s period in residence, according to a program overseen and approved by the Ph.D. Program Committee. The general examination is normally taken upon completion of two years of course work (preferably in the fall of the third year in residence). Qualifying for the M.A. The Master of Arts (M.A.) degree is typically an incidental degree on the way to full Ph.D. candidacy and is earned after a student successfully completes the general examination. It may also be awarded to students who, for various reasons, leave the Ph.D. program after successfully completing the general exam. Teaching Teaching experience is considered to be a significant part of graduate education. The School recommends that Ph.D. candidates serve as Assistants-in-instruction (AI) for at least one term. Post-Generals requirements Following the general exam, students meet with the Ph.D. Program Committee each spring. These reviews provide opportunities for all members of the Ph.D. Committee to review progress and provide feedback. Students submit a progress report describing publications, conferences attended, lectures given, teaching or research assistantships completed. The report also includes progress on dissertation writing, funding applications, etc. At least one new dissertation chapter must be submitted in each of the post-generals years. Dissertation and FPO The culmination of the program is the defense of the finished dissertation at the final public oral (FPO) examination, which includes the thesis adviser, a second reader from the Ph.D. Committee, and a third internal or external reader. For full FPO committee composition requirements, please consult the Graduate School website. Advisers read and comment on initial drafts of the student’s dissertation, consult on methods and sources, and approve any changes in the dissertation outline stemming from research discoveries and shifting emphases. The School often recommends that additional readers from inside or outside the School review sections of the research. The research toward a dissertation normally includes at least one year spent on archival research. The Ph.D. is awarded after the candidate’s doctoral dissertation has been accepted and the final public oral examination completed. Program description Professional Master’s Degree The Master of Architecture (M.Arch.), accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB), is intended for students who plan to practice architecture professionally. The M.Arch. qualifies students to take the state professional licensing examination after completing the required internship. Refer to the NAAB statement on the School of Architecture’s website for more information. Students are eligible for admission to the graduate program whether or not they have had undergraduate work in architecture. The typical duration of the program is three years; students with an intensive undergraduate architecture background may be eligible for advanced standing. Post-Professional Master’s Degree A post-professional M.Arch. degree is available to those who hold the degree of Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) or its equivalent from an international institution. These are students who have successfully completed a professional program in architecture and have fulfilled the educational requirements for professional licensing in the state or country in which the degree was granted. Students typically complete this program in two years. The post-professional degree is not accredited by the NAAB. Courses Students in the professional M.Arch. program must take a minimum of 25 courses, typically four per term, including one design studio each term and the independent design thesis in the final term. The studio sequence, required building technology and professional practice courses, and courses in history and theory of architecture and urbanism constitute a core knowledge of the discipline. In addition to these required courses, each student must complete distribution requirements within the areas of history and theory and building technology. In order to encourage the development of an individual program of study, each student may select up to three electives, which may be fulfilled with any course offered within the University and approved by the director of graduate studies. Students granted advanced standing are usually required to take a minimum of 16 courses within the distributional requirements of the three-year program, including one design studio each term and the independent design thesis in the final term. Because of the differences in the educational backgrounds of students entering with advanced standing, the required number of courses in the areas of distribution is determined by the director of graduate studies after reviewing each student’s transcript and experience. While students normally take four courses each term, in their final term of the program they may enroll in and complete as few as two courses, provided that total course requirements will still be met and additional time is needed in the final term to meet the specific research requirements of the thesis. Students who wish to enroll in fewer than four courses in the final term must have this request reviewed and approved by the director of graduate studies. Students in the post-professional master’s degree program are granted wide latitude in course selection in order to create a program of study which aligns with their individual educational and research goals. The courses are distributed across the areas of design studios and a design thesis, history and theory, building technology, and elective courses that can be taken throughout the University with the approval of the director of graduate studies. Students are required to complete a minimum of 14 courses. Thesis The thesis at Princeton is understood to be the culmination of the Master of Architecture curriculum. As such, it is the moment when the student contributes to, and advances, the discipline. Students participate in a thesis workshop during their penultimate semester. The aim of this workshop is to hone topics by situating them within a lineage—articulating where a project resembles or differs from works that have addressed such topics—and by developing a focused argument for a particular approach to the question. The thesis design project, conducted as independent work during the final semester, then tests this approach in a project whose underpinnings are pointed toward the synthesis of intellectual and design objectives. The thesis concludes with a public final review, where the project is evaluated both on its own terms and within the broader field of contemporary architectural discourse. Additional requirements Computer Requirement Students in the Architecture program are strongly encouraged to own a Windows or Mac computer during their tenure. The School of Architecture does provide 12 high-end Dell Desktops and 4 iMacs in the computer lab with a full suite of software. Recommendations for personal computer purchases include a minimum 512 SSD hard drive, 16GB RAM, decent graphics card and processor. Computers should have the most updated operating systems with virus software installed. Most software provided by the School of Architecture is via network distribution and is Windows based. In addition, students are required to pay an annual $350 lab fee for access to the computers, plotters, printer, scanners and networked software. Faculty Dean Mónica Ponce de León Associate Dean Michael Meredith Chair Mónica Ponce de León Director of Graduate Studies Marshall B. Brown Beatriz Colomina Director of Undergraduate Studies Cameron Wu Professor Stanley T. Allen M. Christine Boyer Beatriz Colomina Elizabeth Diller Mario I. Gandelsonas Sylvia Lavin Paul Lewis Michael Meredith Guy J.P. Nordenson Jesse A. Reiser Associate Professor Marshall B. Brown Forrest M. Meggers Spyros Papapetros Assistant Professor Erin D. Besler Jay Cephas S.E. Eisterer V. Mitch McEwen Cameron Wu Lecturer Aaron P. Shkuda Visiting Professor Anthony Vidler Visiting Associate Professor Michael Osman Visiting Lecturer Sylvester T. Black J. Robert Hillier Tessa Kelly Anna A. Neimark Mahadev Raman Daniel Sherer For a full list of faculty members and fellows please visit the department or program website. Permanent Courses Courses listed below are graduate-level courses that have been approved by the program’s faculty as well as the Curriculum Subcommittee of the Faculty Committee on the Graduate School as permanent course offerings. Permanent courses may be offered by the department or program on an ongoing basis, depending on curricular needs, scheduling requirements, and student interest. Not listed below are undergraduate courses and one-time-only graduate courses, which may be found for a specific term through the Registrar’s website. Also not listed are graduate-level independent reading and research courses, which may be approved by the Graduate School for individual students. ARC 501 - Architecture Design Studio A two-semester sequence in which fundamental design skills are taught in the context of the architect¿s wider responsibilities to society, culture and the environment. Students acquire a command of the techniques of design and representation through a series of specific architectural problems of increasing complexity. Both semesters required for three-year M.Arch. students. ARC 502 - Architecture Design Studio A two-semester sequence in which fundamental design skills are taught in the context of the architect¿s wider responsibilities to society, culture and the environment. Students acquire a command of the techniques of design and representation through a series of specific architectural problems of increasing complexity. Both semesters required for three-year M.Arch. students. ARC 503 - Integrated Building Studios Integrated design studios approach architecture from a synthetic perspective. Considerations of structure, environmental technology, building materials and systems, exterior envelope, and site design are integrated directly into the design process through the participation of technical faculty and outside advisors in critiques and reviews. Projects are developed to a high level of detail. At least one course is required for professional M.Arch. students. Fall, Spring. ARC 504 - Integrated Building Studios Integrated design studios approach architecture from a synthetic perspective. Considerations of structure, environmental technology, building materials and systems, exterior envelope, and site design are integrated directly into the design process through the participation of technical faculty and outside advisors in critiques and reviews. Projects are developed to a high level of detail. At least one course is required for professional M.Arch. students. Fall, Spring. ARC 505A - Architecture Design Studio Explores architecture as a social art and the special organization of the human environment. Projects include a broad range of problem types, including individual buildings, groups of buildings, urban districts, and landscapes. ARC 505B - Architecture Design Studio Explores architecture as a social art and the special organization of the human environment. Projects include a broad range of problem types, including individual buildings, groups of buildings, urban districts, and landscapes. ARC 505C - Architecture Design Studio Explores architecture as a seocial art and the spatial organization of teh human environment. Projects include a broad range of problem types, including individual buildings, groups of buildings, urban districts, and landscapes. ARC 506A - Architecture Design Studio Explores architecture as a social art and the special organization of the human environment. Projects include a broad range of problem types, including individual buildings, groups of buildings, urban districts, and landscapes. ARC 506B - Architecture Design Studio Explores architecture as a social art and the special organization of the human environment. Projects include a broad range of problem types, including individual buildings, groups of buildings, urban districts, and landscapes. ARC 507 - Thesis Studio An independent design project on a theme selected by the student. The thesis project is an opportunity for each student to define an individual position with regard to a specific aspect of architectural practice. As an integral part of the design process, it is intended that the thesis project will incorporate research, programming and site definition. One course is required for all M.Arch. students. Completion of pre-thesis workshops is required for entry into Thesis Studio. Fall, Spring. ARC 508 - Thesis Studio An independent design project on a theme selected by the student. The thesis project is an opportunity for each student to define an individual position with regard to a specific aspect of architectural practice. As an integral part of the design process, it is intended that the thesis project will incorporate research, programming and site definition. One course is required for all M.Arch. students. Completion of pre-thesis workshops is required for entry into Thesis Studio. Fall, Spring. ARC 508A - M. Arch Thesis Studio The Master of Architecture Thesis is an independent design project on a theme selected by the student. The student begins with a thesis statement outlining an area of study or a problem that has consequences for contemporary architectural production. Marking the transition between the academic and professional worlds, the thesis project is an opportunity for each student to define an individual position with regard to a specific aspect of architectural practice. As an integral part of the design process, it is intended that the thesis project incorporate research, programming and site definition. ARC 508B - Post-Prof. Thesis Studio The Master of Architecture Thesis is an independent design project on a theme selected by the student. The student begins with a thesis statement outlining an area of study or a problem that has consequences for contemporary architectural production. Marking the transition between the academic and professional worlds, the thesis project is an opportunity for each student to define an individual position with regard to a specific aspect of architectural practice. As an integral part of the design process, it is intended that the thesis project will incorporate research, programming and site definition. ARC 509 - Integrated Building Systems An introduction to building systems and the methods of construction used to realize design in built form. Focus of the first half of the course is on primary systems, materials and principles used in construction of buildings and the fabrication of elements. Focus then shifts to examining how information is communicated from designers to fabricators, and current standards that exist in the practice of architecture and its relation to changes in methods of fabrication and project delivery. Lectures and laboratory sessions. ARC 510 - Structural Analysis for Architecture An introduction to the analysis and design of structural systems for buildings, including beams, columns, arches, and other structural members. The structural behavior of individual elements and simple structural systems is studied and analyzed quantitatively. ARC 511 - Structural Design Analysis and design of structural systems, including frames, arches, plates, and shells. Primarily, it considers reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, and structural steel. Structural behavior is studied and analyzed by means of small-scale models. The design and construction of existing major structures are analyzed in some detail. ARC 513 - Contemporary Facade Design Introduces students to the current state of facade design and engineering as an emerging integrated discipline and prepares students to develop an understanding of the global facade industry. Discussion will focus on the multi-faceted and changing role of the architect in enabling and leading the necessary collaborative process that is required to achieve common goals in a discipline that is both essential to the artistic expression of building and highly technical. ARC 514 - The Environmental Engineering of Buildings, Part I A study of the needs and means of environmental control in buildings and urban developments, including environmental control systems and equipment in relation to structural and other components of construction. Either course may be offered either term. ARC 515 - The Environmental Engineering of Buildings, Part II A study of the needs and means of environmental control in buildings and urban developments, including environmental control systems and equipment in relation to structural and other components of construction. Either course may be offered either term. ARC 518 - Construction and Interpretation Seminar examines the relation of construction, structure and building services to the production of meaning through a series of case studies of buildings and bridges and as well as general surveys of the work of specific engineers and architects. ARC 522 - History of Comparative Architecture Leveraging a comparative methodology, this course explores the history and theory of architecture by examining various topics - form and architectural tradition; theory and practice; Italian and American architecture; modern architecture and contemporary art; the interplay between cinema and architecture; color and modernist ideology - by considering intersections, mutual receptions, tensions, analogies and exchanges. While new paths of inquiry and research are strongly encouraged, this seminar aims to provide a strong historiographical foundation and experience working with a comparative approach. ARC 525 - Mapping the City: Cities and Cinema (also ART 524) This course examines the relationship between two forms of mapping the city: cinematic representations of urban space and architectural representations of urban form. It questions how shifts in urban form and plans for development or reconstruction give rise to cinematic representations. Required viewing of films every week in addition to required readings. Project on the general theme of mapping the city through cinema utilizing materials from films, urban texts, and readings. ARC 526 - Research in Urbanism Topics in the research or urbanism. ARC 530 - M.Arch. Thesis Seminar Thesis Seminar prepares students to formulate a rigorous design hypothesis based on a critical position rooted in original research that outlines a path toward a compelling architectural project. Each year a different theme serves both as a point of connection to issues of general concern to the practice and discipline of architecture and also as a launchpad for independent student work. Students develop research and design protocols that link knowledge to creative output. Class sessions are devoted to discussions of readings, workshops and student presentations, dialog with invited speakers and preliminary design development. ARC 531 - Proseminar for Post-Professional M.Arch. A series of exercises guide students to identify the primary questions that currently structure the discipline and extra-disciplinary concerns which architecture must engaged today. Analyses of these issues are linked to contemporary architectural production. Each week students present from the format list. The focus in the formats and their connections substitute buildings analysis or close readings of texts as isolated arguments, and should help discern the diversity of threads they open. Our goal is to describe value systems and discursive paths used not only to evaluate but also reconstitute architectural practice. ARC 532 - Post-Professional M.Arch. Thesis Seminar This course supports students in the development of a broad range of thesis topics optimized to the faculty of the SoA. A series of exercises guide students to identify the primary questions that currently structure the discipline and those extra-disciplinary concerns which architecture must engage today. Throughout the work, analyses of these issues are linked to contemporary architectural production. All work is conducted by small teams and harnesses the dynamic feedback between specifically architectural problematics and the general logic of contemporary culture in preparation for future thesis work. ARC 537 - Architecture, Technology, and the Environment As climate change reshapes enviro-technical landscapes across the globe, this seminar examines discussions on the history of energy, nature, and built landscapes in terms of historiography and on location. Independent research thus considers the material and historical ramifications of the discussed concepts and probes them through case studies and locally. Students can choose to focus on historical or design inquiries for the final independent research projects which result in a journal-article style paper or exhibition that includes historical maps, drawings and installations. ARC 547 - Introduction to Formal Analysis An introduction to critical methods and principles of architectural analysis considered through an in-depth investigation of historically significant buildings, landscapes, and urban spaces. Precedents are analyzed according to their underlying formal structure and spatial organization as well as in terms of the cultural and historical forces that helped shape their architectural form and meaning. ARC 548 - Histories and Theories of 19th-Century Architecture (also ART 585) The seminar studies selected architectural projects, buildings, and writings from the nineteenth and late-eighteenth centuries in the context of their critical and historical reception, and their active influence on the theory of modern and contemporary design. Each year the seminar focuses on a specific topic, such as the relation between architecture and geology, ecology and material science, or the building projects and theoretical writings of an individual nineteenth-century architect examined in conjunction with the histories of art, culture, and science of the same period. ARC 549 - History and Theories of Architecture: 20th Century (also ART 586) An overview of the major themes running through modern architecture in the twentieth century. The seminar is based on a close reading of selected buildings and texts both by prominent and less prominent figures of the modern movement and its aftermath. Special emphasis is given to the historiography and the history of reception of modern architecture, as well as the cultural, aesthetic and scientific theories that have informed modern architectural debates, including organicism, vitalism, functionalism, structuralism, historicism and their opposites. ARC 550 - Space and Subjectivity This seminar focuses on identifying and articulating key concepts and themes concerning the interplay of race and the built environment. Proceeding initially from theories of subjectivity articulated by W.E.B. Du Bois, Michel Foucault, and Stuart Hall, the course analyzes culturations of the self via a theory of reflexive spatial practices that can help explain encounters between racialized forms of identity and the material conditions of architecture and cities. ARC 551 - Architecture's Empire This course addresses the historical and geographic interconnections between modern architecture and the dissolution of the colonial system after 1919. This is a hybrid of a history seminar, where key trends in post-colonial space are surveyed, and an atlas-making workshop, where architectural case-studies are researched, written up, and mapped. That modernism and colonialism were implicated has now become an established fact, yet architecture history remains stubbornly provincial. This class aims to erode this provincialism by testing one hypothesis: that modernism's global place-holding promise was a crucial part of its success. ARC 560 - Topics in Contemporary Architecture & Urbanism Course allows a group of students to work closely with a faculty member in order to complete a significant piece of research in contemporary architecture and urbanism which may be published, exhibited or performed publicly, with a goal of receiving feedback in the form of reviews, peer response, and public discussion. Projects vary year to year. Recent projects have included, e.g. set design for Meyerhold's "Boris Gudonov" (public production) and New Jersey sprawl (exhibition). ARC 560A - Topics in Contemporary Architecture and Urbanism This course allows a group of students to work closely with a faculty member to complete a significant piece of research in contemporary architecture and urbanism which may be published, exhibited or performed publicly, with a goal of receiving feedback in the form of reviews, peer response, and public discussion. Projects vary year to year. Recent projects have included, e.g. set design for Meyerhold's "Boris Gudonov" (public production) and New Jersey sprawl (exhibition). ARC 560B - Topics in Contemporary Architecture & Urbanism The term "model behavior" is commonly used to describe good social skills. This seminar turns that concept on its head to investigate how models themselves behave. Conceptual models, study models, section models, and presentation models are givens in architecture, but their role in projecting or inducing social behavior is seldom considered. When models in other disciplines - such as climate change and Covid models - are clearly affecting social behavior, how do architectural models change social behaviors? This course explores the potentials of the architectural model and its relationships to the myriad models that shape culture today. ARC 560C - Topics in Contemporary Architecture and Urbanism Embodied energy (EE) may soon exceed operational energy as a contributor to atmospheric carbon. However, EE is by far the harder of the two to measure. This seminar is devoted to understanding, and critiquing, existing methods of measuring EE. Students undertake an independent research project centered on an EE measurement (calculation) that a) accepts/addresses real world complications and b) is meant to have real world implications. ARC 562 - Introduction to the Architecture Profession Explores the professional activities of architects and their responsibilities in society. It examines the relationship of the architect to the building industry; the selection process and the realities of the marketplace; the organization of professional practice and building operations; the use of zoning ordinances, building codes, and standards; contracts, contract documents, and specifications; construction administration; and legal considerations. There are weekly seminars. ARC 563 - Founding, Building, and Managing your own Architectural Practice The course offers a review and analysis of the dynamics and process inherent in starting, developing, managing, and operating an architectural practice, including marketing, finance, human resources, project process, liability, insurance, and general management. One three-hour seminar. ARC 569 - Extramural Research Internship Full-time research internship at a host institution, to perform scholarly research relevant to student's dissertation work. Research objectives are determined by advisor in conjunction with outside host. A mid-summer progress review and a final report are required. Special rules apply to international students regarding CPT/OPT use. ARC 571 - Research in Architecture (also ART 581/LAS 571/MOD 573) A research seminar in selected areas of aesthetics, art criticism, and architectural theory from the 18th to the 20th centuries on the notion of representation in art and architecture. This seminar is given to students in the doctoral program at the School of Architecture and to doctoral candidates in other departments. ARC 572 - Research in Architecture (Proseminar) A research seminar in selected areas of aesthetics, art criticism, and architectural theory from the 18th to the 20th centuries on the notion of representation in art and architecture. This seminar is given to students in the doctoral program at the School of Architecture and to doctoral candidates in other departments. ARC 574 - Computational Fabrication in Architecture A seminar focusing on the formal analysis of buildings and familiarizing students with two- and three-dimensional computer graphics through the use of the microcomputer cluster in the School of Architecture. Students use AUTOCAD in their analyses of buildings. Lecture, tutorial, seminar. ARC 575 - Advanced Topics in Modern Architecture Case studies in the 20th-century avant-garde. Individual buildings belonging to specific building types are subjected to comparative analysis in terms of their formal organization and their cultural and ideological context. There are six weekly lectures, followed by student reports and discussion. ARC 576 - Advanced Topics in Modern Architecture (also ART 598/MOD 502) Explores the critical transformation in the relationship between interior and exterior space in modern architecture, which is most evident in domestic space. Domestic space ceases to be simply bounded space in opposition to the outside, whether physical or social. An analysis of modern houses is used as a frame to register contemporary displacements of the relationship between public and private space, instigated by the emerging reality of the technologies of communicaton, including newspaper, telephone, radio, film, and television. ARC 577 - Topics in Contemporary Architectural Theory (also MOD 577) Explores recent changes in architectural history, theory, criticism, and practice by examining the effects of contemporary critical theory on architectural discourse. Particular attention is given to the ways in which architectural theory has influenced the critical theory of other disciplines and vice versa. ARC 578 - Utopics: Private Fantasies, Public Projects This seminar investigates the consistent presence of utopian thought in architecture. The seminar provides an introduction to the traditional narratives of utopia in Plato, More, Bacon, Ledoux, Fourier, Saint-Simon, and the emergence of utopianism as a critical practice in the 1950s and 1960s including Lettrism, Situationism, Archizoom, Superstudio, Archigram, Utopie, and Metabolism. Readings include historical and contemporary theories of utopia, and complementary texts in political, psychoanalytical, social and cybernetic theory. Participants select one example for research and documentation. ARC 580 - Gender, Cities, and Dissent (also GSS 580/MOD 580) This course asks how intersectional feminism, queer, and trans theory can spearhead new methods of research, objects of study, and ways of seeing and analyzing spaces, buildings, cities, and human alliances within them. Overall, the seminar focuses on practices and forms of organizing around LGBTQ+ rights and how historical actors have formed networks and associations to resist dominant spatial and political regimes. ARC 594 - Topics in Architecture (also ART 584/HUM 593/MOD 504/SPA 559) This course covers various topics related to the history and theory of architecture. ARC 598 - M. Arch Thesis Studio-Resubmission No description available ARC 599 - Post-Prof. Thesis Studio-Resubmission No description available ART 504 - Studies in Greek Architecture (also ARC 565/CLA 536/HLS 534) This seminar explores topics in Greek Architecture from thematic perspectives and focused analysis of individual structures. Trends in ancient building practices and their cultural legacies are investigated in a holistic manner, from the drawing board and quarry to modern reception. ART 547 - Early Modern Architecture (also ARC 552) Advanced research in the history of architecture from 1400 to 1750. Topics vary, with the focus each year placed on important European centers and architects and on issues related to architectural theory and practice. ART 583 - Textile Architecture (also ARC 583) This seminar examines the theoretical and practical intersections between architecture and woven materials across time, focusing on three key moments: the imagined origins of architecture in a non-Western, a-historical past: textiles' place in transforming built architecture; and twentieth-century experiments in which the figure of cloth allowed for expressing ideas that often exceeded what standing material realities were then possible for architects. CEE 546 - Form Finding of Structural Surfaces (also ARC 566) The course looks at the most inventive structures and technologies, demonstrating their use of form finding techniques in creating complex curved surfaces. The first part introduces the topic of structural surfaces, tracing the ancient relationship between innovative design and construction technology and the evolution of surface structures. The second part familiarizes the student with membranes(systems, form finding techniques,materials and construction techniques) The third part focuses on rigid surfaces. The fourth part provides a deeper understanding of numerical form finding techniques. ENG 571 - Literary and Cultural Theory (also ARC 589/COM 592/HUM 570/MOD 570) A study of the role of culture in literary practice and theory. Topics include postmodernism, post-colonialism, feminism, performance theory, queer theory, and popular cultures, among others. HUM 597 - Humanistic Perspectives on History and Society (also ARC 597/LAS 597/MOD 597/SPA 557) In this seminar we locate Spinoza and the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670) in the exciting currents of seventeenth-century philosophy, theology, biblical scholarship and exegesis. Resituating Spinoza in Golden Age Holland we examine the resources and relevant controversies that shaped the Tractatus, with an eye to common concerns and traditions: the legacies of humanism and Reformation in the Netherlands, for instance, the larger worlds of his friends, as well as the vibrant Jewish community in Golden Age Amsterdam and the varieties of Christian lay piety that fall broadly under the banner of "the Radical Reformation." MAE 518 - Virtual and Augmented Reality for Scientists, Engineers, and Architects (also ARC 516/ENE 528) VR/AR can enable engineers, scientists, and architects to plan and conduct their work in fundamentally new ways, visualize and communicate their findings more effectively, and work in environments that are otherwise difficult, impossible, or too costly to experience in person. This course explores the basic concepts of effective VR/AR experiences and builds the skills needed to develop and support innovative science, engineering, or architecture projects. In the second half of the semester, working in small teams, students develop and implement VR/AR projects of their choice. SPI 533 - Planning Theory and Process (also ARC 535) Introduces planning theory, history, and practice. Examines urban, suburban, and regional planning processes, emphasizing the United States and Europe. Analyzes alternative planning models, issues such as ethics and social justice, and the diverse roles of public and private sector planners.