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The Department of Geosciences, together with its affiliated interdepartmental programs and institutes, serves as Princeton’s central focus for the earth, atmospheric, oceanographic and environmental sciences. As such, the department encompasses a rich diversity of scientific expertise and initiatives, ranging from the measurement and modeling of global climatic change to high-pressure mineral physics, and from seismic tomographic imaging of the mantle to analysis of the tectonics of Venus.
Atmospheric and ocean sciences are an integral part of the department, with most of the research taking place in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). In addition, there are close ties with the programs in water resources in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, as well as with the Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI) and the Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM). We also provide computational geosciences as an interdisciplinary graduate training program.
Graduate education within the department, in general, is strongly focused on research, as well as on developing a keen sense for the interdisciplinary nature of the geosciences. As a consequence, Princeton has been extraordinarily successful in mentoring students to move on to tenure-track positions in academia as well as leading research positions in industry or government laboratories. The department offers only a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) program, for which both beginning and advanced students may apply. The average time to graduation is five years.
Academics and Research
The Department of Geosciences covers a wide range of fields, and actively promotes interdisciplinary study and research. Students with interest in tectonics and geophysics, Earth history, geochemistry, geochronology, petrology, mineral physics, biological oceanography, paleontology, paleoceanography and paleoclimate and environmental geology will find most of their research and educational needs accommodated within the laboratories of Guyot Hall.
In addition, the department has associated programs in water resources (shared with Civil Engineering), materials science (in collaboration with the Princeton Materials Institute) and environmental science (in collaboration with Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI).
Equipment and Facilities
Modern earth science has a continuum of approaches, ranging from field studies to laboratory and theoretical work using sophisticated instrumentation and large computers. In addition to petrographic, mineralogic, sedimentologic, and paleontologic facilities for routine geoscientific inquiry, the department has specialized equipment for laboratory and field studies rooted in a wide-array of disciplines.
Geochemistry: Specific instruments include: three inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometers for high-precision trace element (Thermo Element 2 ICPMS and Thermo iCap) and isotope ratio (Thermo Neptune MC ICPMS) analyses-absorption spectrometers; microwave for rapid silicate dissolution; modern micro-XRF setup; gas chromatographs, HPLC, and ion analyzers; infrared, ultraviolet and fluorescent spectrometers; gamma and scintillation counters; ultracentrifuges; dissolved- and solid-carbon analyzers; and modern wet-chemical laboratory facilities. There is also a hydrothermal laboratory, including large-capacity rocking autoclaves, kinetic flow systems, optical high-pressure and high-temperature cells, and an internally heated high-pressure system.
Geochronology and Petrology: In addition to modern mineral separation and characterization facilities, Guyot hosts new clean lab facilities suitable for ultra-low blank trace metal geochemistry used for ion chromatography for Ca, Mg, Sr, U, Pb, Sm, and Nd elemental separation. The lab also has an IsotopX PhoeniX62 Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer used for high-precision U-Pb geochronology and Sr and Nd isotope measurements. Mineral and rock geochemistry that accompanies geochronology is carried out in other facilities on campus and within Guyot, such as in the ICPMS facilities.
The Ocean Tracer Laboratory: Includes alpha detectors and scintillation detectors for measuring low levels of radon and radium radioisotopes and a high-resolution intrinsic germanium well detector for gamma ray measurement.
The Stable Isotope Laboratory: Contains a new V. G. Optima gas source mass spectrometer, with peripheral devices for automated analysis of carbonate minerals and for automated loading and cleaning of CO2, H2O, and N2 gas mixtures. Off-line preparation facilities are available for water samples, organic materials, and minerals.
Biological Oceanography Research: Focuses on carbon and nitrogen cycle processes and trace metals in the oceans. Instruments include controlled temperature rooms for phytoplankton and bacterial culture, epifluorescence microscopes, centrifuges, scintillation counter, gamma counter, autoclave, atomic absorption spectrometer, laminar flow hoods, trace metal clean room, Europa 20/20 mass spectrometer, automated DNA sequencer, gel documentation system, and fully equipped molecular biological laboratories for protein and nucleic acid research.
Geophysics: The High-Pressure Mineral Physics Laboratory contains diamond anvil cells for high-pressure/temperature studies. Included in the facility are stereomicroscopes, microdrill, gas loading system, photoluminescence, and Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy. Access is also available to a wide range of national user facilities for conducting experiments including synchrotrons, free electron lasers, and high-powered laser facilities. Mineral characterization is supported by shared facilities on campus featuring multiple scanning electron microscopes equipped with elemental analysis capabilities in addition to backscattered-electron and cathodoluminescence imaging, TEM, and FIB (see the imaging and analysis center on Princeton’s website). All these facilities are supported by a departmental machine shop.
The department owns several 6-channel digital portable seismometers along with support equipment for small-scale field experiments. For larger experiments abroad, we use portable seismographs from the IRIS Passcal Instrument Center.
We routinely obtain data from digital archives around the world, as well as from our own field experiments. For numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation and tomographic imaging and inversion, we have access to powerful computers provided by the Princeton Institute for Computational Sciences and Engineering (PICSciE), and to even more powerful machines provided by national supercomputing centers.
Course work requirements are flexible and depend on the track chosen. All incoming students are required to follow an introductory course on the fundamental questions in the geosciences, covering both solid earth and environmental problems. An important part of graduate education arises from independent research, which begins in the first year. Course work in other departments that strengthens students’ background in biology, chemistry, engineering sciences, mathematics and physics is encouraged.
Courses must be taken for a grade when the graded option is offered, and the average of the graded courses is expected to be B or higher.
Pre-generals students are normally expected to enroll in and complete two to four courses or seminars, either within or outside the department, per term. The actual load may vary depending on a student's background, interests, the availability of courses, the number and nature of other academic activities, etc. Students are expected to have completed eight courses, or the equivalent, by the end of the semester in which they take the General Exam. The eight courses must include GEO 506 – Fundamentals of the Geosciences, and at least two graduate-level or appropriate-level undergraduate courses outside their field of expertise, chosen with approval of the advisory committee. Students must also take GEO/AOS 503 – Responsible Conduct of Research in Geosciences, which does not count towards the 8 courses.
Research paper and thesis proposal:
A high-quality research paper summarizing the first two years of research is required prior to taking the general exam. The research paper does not need to be ready for publication, but the paper should have a scholarly level close to that of a paper submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The research accomplishments should indicate a reasonable level of productivity, and the interpretation should indicate knowledge of the literature and excellent critical thinking. The thesis proposal should clearly express the justification and the research plans. In response to questions, students should show a broad knowledge of the relevant literature, an understanding of the underlying principles, and knowledge of analytical modeling. A research progress report is also required near the end of the student’s first year.
The general examination for advancement to Ph.D. candidacy is normally taken before the end of the second year of graduate work. The examination is designed to establish the student’s depth and breadth of knowledge in the chosen fields of specialization, advancement in scholarly methods of research, and the ability to organize and present research material. The examination is based in part on a written report submitted by the student describing the research activities undertaken during the first two years.
During the general examination a student is expected to demonstrate competence and professional expertise in the geological sciences and related fields as relevant to the student's major interests. Accordingly, the examination is designed to explore: (1) the student's ability to organize and conduct an original research program and to present research results and material, (2) the student's depth of knowledge in the chosen fields of specialization, and (3) breadth in the geological and related sciences.
A typical examination consists of two parts: the research paper and thesis proposal, and the two topics of expertise selected by the student. The exam does not normally last longer than 3 hours. The first half of the exam covers the research paper and the thesis proposal, beginning with a student presentation of 20 minutes length. Each committee member will question the student on his or her research area. Then, after a short break, the second part of the exam covers the two topics selected by the student. Each committee member will ask questions testing the student's general knowledge of the basic science underlying the areas of specialization and fundamental concepts in earth sciences and related disciplines.
The Master of Arts (M.A.) degree is normally an incidental degree on the way to full Ph.D. candidacy and is earned after a student successfully passes all course work, and the first-year and second-year research reports. It may also be awarded to students who, for various reasons, leave the Ph.D. program, provided that these requirements have been met.
Under some circumstances, a student may decide prior to the general exam that he or she does not wish to continue in the Ph.D. program but does wish to qualify for a master's degree (M.A.) from the department. In this case, the student should discuss this option with the adviser and advisory committee well in advance. The general exam for an M.A. degree is similar to that for Ph.D. candidacy but will not include defense of a research plan.
Every graduate student is required to participate in the instruction of undergraduates for at least one term (one term as a full assistant in instruction, or two terms as half time assistant in instruction) as a significant part of his or her education.
The dissertation shows that the candidate has technical mastery in the chosen field and is capable of independent research. It is expected to be a positive contribution to knowledge, which may consist of a new scientific generalization, a new body of integrated facts that carries scientific implications that extend beyond itself or a substantial improvement in technique or procedure.
The final public oral examination is a final examination in the field of study. In addition to defending the dissertation, candidates are expected to respond to questions relating to the specific principles involved in their research and to wide-ranging questions about related subjects.
The Ph.D. will be awarded once the dissertation has been approved and the final public oral has been completed.
Bess B. Ward
Thomas S. Duffy
Adam C. Maloof
S. George H. Philander
Courses for Spring 2015
Courses listed below show only regular graduate-level courses for the term; undergraduate courses and graduate-level independent reading and research courses, which may be approved by the Graduate School for individual students, are not listed.
This course cover fundamental papers on the Geosciences of Iceland. Topics include deep mantle plumes and spreading, basaltic volcanism, volcanic aerosols, seismicity, geothermal power, microbial ecology of hot springs, glacial geology, and the impact of global warming on Arctic permafrost stability and greenhouse gas release. Weekly meetings include presentations on these topics among others by students as preparation for a 10 day field trip to Iceland during the summer. Participation in the field trip includes student on site presentations.
A survey of fundamental papers in the Geosciences. Topics include present and future climate, biogeochemical processes in the ocean, geochemical cycles, orogenies, thermochronology, rock fracture and seismicity. This is the core geosciences graduate course.
This course will survey the structure and properties of the deep earth, including the lower mantle and core. Seismology, mineral physics and geodynamics will be used to explore different facets of the deep earth, and the interiors of other planets, with an emphasis on fundamental and cutting edge literature.
Examines the use of stable isotope measurements to investigate important biogeochemical, environmental, and geologic processes, today and over Earth history. Introduction to terminology, basic underlying principles, measurement techniques, commonly used analytical and computational approaches for analyzing data, followed by a review of typical applications of the isotope systems of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements. Lectures by the instructor, problem sets, numerical modeling assignments, student presentations and a final student paper based on readings from the scientific literature.
High throughput sequencing has transformed environmental microbiology, but dealing with the massive datasets is daunting. This course familiarizes students with the approaches used in assembly and annotation of metagenomes, single-cell genomes and metatranscriptomes, metaproteomes and how to utilize the processed data to address phylogenetic and functional diversity in the environment. The course uses a combination of lectures, readings drawn from the literature, and hands-on processing of genomic datasets using MG RAST, IMG, MetaVelvet, MetaIDBA, MOTHUR, MEGAN etc. among others
This course explores global geochemical cycles through the use of simple numerical models. Topics covered range from box models of the geologic carbon and oxygen cycles, planetary thermostats, and atmospheric oxygenation, to box models of Cenozoic seawater chemistry (Mg and Ca), to 1D diffusion-reaction modes of the dynamics of carbon and oxygen in sedimentary systems. Previous coursework in differential equations and MATLAB are highly desirable but not absolutely necessary.
This course investigates biological and environmental effects of Deccan volcanism 66 m.y. ago in India that led to the KT mass extinction and delayed biotic recovery. Investigations include climate and environmental changes, weathering, ocean acidification and its effects on calcareous marine microplankton and the observed high-stress marine assemblages. The timing of major volcanic eruptions and the time elapsed between individual lava flows will be investigated based on red bole layers.
Natural gas phase and heterogeneous chemistry in the troposphere and stratosphere, with a focus on elementary chemical kinetics; photolysis processes; oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen chemistry; transport of atmospheric trace species; tropospheric hydrocarbon chemistry and stratospheric halogen chemistry; stratospheric ozone destruction; local and regional air pollution, and chemistry-climate interactions are studied.